Module Contents



Applicable Permission values (names) under certain Service and Resource.


Applicable types of Permission according to context.


Applicable access modifier of Permission values.


Applicable access modifier of Permission values.


Explicit definition of a Permission with applicable Access and Scope to resolve it.


format_permissions(→ Dict[magpie.typedefs.Str, ...)

Obtains the formatted permission representations after validation that each of their name is a known member of





magpie.permissions.PERMISSION_REASON_DEFAULT = 'no-permission'[source]
magpie.permissions.PERMISSION_REASON_MULTIPLE = 'multiple'[source]
magpie.permissions.PERMISSION_REASON_ADMIN = 'administrator'[source]
class magpie.permissions.Permission[source]

Bases: magpie.utils.ExtendedEnum

Applicable Permission values (names) under certain Service and Resource.

READ = 'read'[source]
WRITE = 'write'[source]
ACCESS = 'access'[source]
BROWSE = 'browse'[source]
GET_CAPABILITIES = 'getcapabilities'[source]
GET_MAP = 'getmap'[source]
GET_FEATURE_INFO = 'getfeatureinfo'[source]
GET_LEGEND_GRAPHIC = 'getlegendgraphic'[source]
GET_METADATA = 'getmetadata'[source]
GET_PROPERTY_VALUE = 'getpropertyvalue'[source]
GET_FEATURE = 'getfeature'[source]
GET_FEATURE_WITH_LOCK = 'getfeaturewithlock'[source]
GET_GML_OBJECT = 'getgmlobject'[source]
DESCRIBE_FEATURE_TYPE = 'describefeaturetype'[source]
DESCRIBE_LAYER = 'describelayer'[source]
DESCRIBE_PROCESS = 'describeprocess'[source]
EXECUTE = 'execute'[source]
LOCK_FEATURE = 'lockfeature'[source]
TRANSACTION = 'transaction'[source]
CREATE_STORED_QUERY = 'createstoredquery'[source]
DROP_STORED_QUERY = 'dropstoredquery'[source]
LIST_STORED_QUERIES = 'liststoredqueries'[source]
DESCRIBE_STORED_QUERIES = 'describestoredqueries'[source]
class magpie.permissions.PermissionType[source]

Bases: magpie.utils.ExtendedEnum

Applicable types of Permission according to context.

ACCESS = 'access'[source]
ALLOWED = 'allowed'[source]
APPLIED = 'applied'[source]
DIRECT = 'direct'[source]
INHERITED = 'inherited'[source]
EFFECTIVE = 'effective'[source]
OWNED = 'owned'[source]
class magpie.permissions.Access[source]

Bases: magpie.utils.ExtendedEnum

Applicable access modifier of Permission values.

ALLOW = 'allow'[source]
DENY = 'deny'[source]
class magpie.permissions.Scope[source]

Bases: magpie.utils.ExtendedEnum

Applicable access modifier of Permission values.

MATCH = 'match'[source]
RECURSIVE = 'recursive'[source]
class magpie.permissions.PermissionSet(permission: magpie.typedefs.AnyPermissionType, access: Access | magpie.typedefs.Str | None = None, scope: Scope | magpie.typedefs.Str | None = None, typ: PermissionType | None = None, reason: magpie.typedefs.Str | None = None)[source]

Bases: object

Explicit definition of a Permission with applicable Access and Scope to resolve it.

The Permission is the name of the applicable permission on the magpie.models.Resource. The Scope defines how the Permission should impact the resolution of the perceived Effective Permissions over a magpie.models.Resource tree hierarchy. The Access defines how the Permission access should be interpreted (granted or denied).

Optionally, a PermissionType can be provided to specifically indicate which kind of permission this set represents. This type is only for informative purposes, and is not saved to database nor displayed by the explicit string representation. It is returned within JSON representation and can be employed by Effective Permissions resolution to be more verbose about returned results.

On missing Access or Scope specifications, they default to Access.ALLOW and Scope.RECURSIVE to handle backward compatible naming convention of plain permission_name.

Initializes the permission definition, possibly using required conversion from other implementations.

  • permission – Name of the permission, or any other implementation from which the name can be inferred.

  • access – Effective behaviour of the permissions. Generally, grant or deny the specified permission.

  • scope – Scope for which the permission affects hierarchical resources. Important for effective resolution.

  • typ – Type of permission being represented. Informative only, does not impact behavior if omitted.

  • reason – Slightly more indicative information on why the current permission-type has this value. Value should be either explicitly provided or will be inferred if converted from input PermissionTuple.

property reason: magpie.typedefs.Str | None[source]

Indicative reason of the returned value defined by type() or inferred by the PermissionTuple.

See also



Single string that describes the reason (source) of the permission, or multiple strings if updated by combination of multiple permissions.

property group_priority: magpie.typedefs.GroupPriority | None[source]

Priority accessor in case of group inherited permission resolved by PermissionTuple.

property perm_tuple: ziggurat_foundations.permissions.PermissionTuple | None[source]

Get the original PermissionTuple if available (PermissionSet must have been created by one).

property implicit_permission: magpie.typedefs.Str | None[source]

Obtain the implicit string representation of the PermissionSet as plain Permission name.

This representation is backward compatible with prior versions of Magpie where explicit representation of permission names in the database did not exist.

If the contained modifiers of the PermissionSet (notably the Access.DENY) result in a string representation that is not possible according to non existing permissions for older Magpie instances, the returned value will be None.

See also

property explicit_permission: magpie.typedefs.Str[source]

Obtain the explicit string representation of the PermissionSet.

This format is always guaranteed to be completely defined contrary to implicit_permission().

See also

property name: Permission[source]
property access: Access[source]
property scope: Scope[source]
property type: PermissionType | None[source]
__slots__ = ['_name', '_access', '_scope', '_tuple', '_type', '_reason'][source]
__eq__(other: Any) bool[source]

Return self==value.

__ne__(other: Any) bool[source]

Return self!=value.

__lt__(other: Any) bool[source]

Ascending sort of permission according to their name, access and scope modifiers.

First sort by permission name alphabetically, followed by increasing restrictive access and increasing range of scoped resources.

Using this sorting methodology, similar permissions by name are grouped together first, and permissions of same name with modifiers are then ordered, the first having less priority when selecting a single item to display with conflicting possibilities. Respecting Access.DENY is more important than Access.ALLOW (to protect the Resource), and Scope.MATCH is closer to the actual Resource than Scope.RECURSIVE permission received from a farther parent in the hierarchy.

Sorted explicit string representation becomes:

We then obtain two crucial ordering results:
  1. We can easily pick the last sorted item with highest resolution priority to find the final result of corresponding permissions. (note: final result for same user or group, their direct/inherited resolution is not considered here).

  2. Picking the first element with lowest priority also displays the permission that impacts the widest range of resources. For instance in Magpie UI, indicating that a permission as Scope.RECURSIVE is more verbose as it tell other resources under it are also receive the specified Access modifier rather than only the punctual resource.


Alphabetically sorting permissions by string representation (implicit/explicit) is not equivalent to sorting them according to Permission priority according to how modifiers are resolved. To obtain the prioritized sorting as strings, a list of PermissionSet (with the strings as input) should be used to convert and correctly interpreted the raw strings, and then be converted back after sorting.

# valid priority-sorted strings
[str(perm) for perm in sorted(PermissionSet(p) for p in permission_strings)]

# not equivalent to raw sorting
__hash__() int[source]

Return hash(self).

__str__() magpie.typedefs.Str[source]

Obtains the compound literal representation of the PermissionSet.

Employed for database storage supporting ziggurat format.

__repr__() magpie.typedefs.Str[source]

Obtains the visual representation of the PermissionSet.

like(other: Any) bool[source]

Evaluates if one permission is similar to another permission definition regardless of modifiers.

This is different than == operator which will evaluate exactly equal permission definitions.

json() magpie.typedefs.PermissionDict[source]

Obtains the JSON representation of this PermissionSet.

webhook_params() magpie.typedefs.JSON[source]

Obtain JSON representation employed for Webhook reference.

ace(user_or_group: magpie.models.User | magpie.models.Group | None) magpie.typedefs.AccessControlEntryType[source]

Converts the PermissionSet into an ACE that pyramid can understand.

classmethod resolve(permission1: magpie.typedefs.ResolvablePermissionType, permission2: magpie.typedefs.ResolvablePermissionType, context: PermissionType = PermissionType.INHERITED, multiple_choice: magpie.typedefs.Str | None = None) magpie.typedefs.ResolvablePermissionType[source]

Resolves provided permissions into a single one considering various modifiers and groups for a resource.

Permissions MUST have the same Permission name. The associated Resource on which the two compared permissions are applied on should also be the same This method SHOULD NOT be used by itself to obtain for Effective Permission since it does not handle multi-level Resource resolution. Resolution is accomplished in this case only for a given level in the tree hierarchy.

The comparison considers both the Access and Scope of every Inherited Permission of the User, as well as its Group memberships sorted by their priority.

See also

  • permission1 – Permission to compare.

  • permission2 – Permission to compare.

  • context – Control the resolution context (local/effective) of the permissions (safeguard against invalid definitions).

  • multiple_choice – Alternate explanation to default PERMISSION_REASON_MULTIPLE applied if multiple Permission refer to distinct Group of equal priority and equivalent access definitions, meaning they are interchangeable without impacting resolution to access the same target Resource.


Permission with highest priority to resolve access a resource without considering scope.

classmethod _convert(permission: magpie.typedefs.AnyPermissionType) PermissionSet | None[source]

Converts any permission representation to the PermissionSet with applicable enum members.

Supports older Permission representation such that implicit conversion of permission name without access and scope values are padded with defaults. Also, pre-defined partial or full definition from literal string representation are parsed to generate the PermissionSet instance.


permission – implicit or explicit permission name string, or any other known permission implementation


ValueError – when the permission name cannot be identified or parsed

magpie.permissions.format_permissions(permissions: Collection[magpie.typedefs.AnyPermissionType] | None, permission_type: PermissionType | None = None, force_unique: bool = True) Dict[magpie.typedefs.Str, List[magpie.typedefs.Str] | magpie.typedefs.PermissionDict | magpie.typedefs.Str][source]

Obtains the formatted permission representations after validation that each of their name is a known member of Permission enum, and optionally with modifiers as defined by PermissionSet.

The returned lists are sorted alphabetically by permission name, and then in order of resolution priority (from highest to lowest) for each subset or corresponding name.

The permissions are cleaned from any duplicate entries, unless force_unique is specified to allow it. If no or empty permissions is provided, empty lists are returned.


Field permission_names provides both the older implicit permission names and the newer explicit name representation. For this reason, there will be semantically “duplicate” permissions in that list, but there will not be any literal string duplicates. Implicit names are immediately followed by their explicit name, unless implicit names do not apply for the given permission (e.g.: when Access.DENY did not exist). Only detailed and explicit JSON representations are provided in the permissions list.

When permission_type is equal to PermissionType.ALLOWED, the collection of every applicable PermissionSet is automatically generated by expanding all combinations of Access and Scope with every provided Permission name in permissions. This allows more concise definition of allowed permissions under and their children Resource by only defining Permission names without manually listing all variations of PermissionSet.

For other permission_type values, which represent Applied Permission only explicitly provided permissions are returned, to effectively return the collection of active permissions.

  • permissions – multiple permissions of any implementation and type, to be rendered both as names and JSON.

  • permission_type – indication of the represented permissions to be formatted, for informative indication.

  • force_unique – whether to remove duplicate entries by association of name, access and scope or not.


JSON with the permissions listed as implicit+explicit names, as permission set objects, and their type.